In the west, mountainous area run to Chahar Mahal Province and in the east there are Ghahrood and Karkas mountains. The plain area is formed by alluviums of mountainous streams and Zayandeh-Rood river. Enjoying a mild climate, Isfahan has relatively regular seasons. Flowing through Isfahan city, Zayandeh Rood river is the most important river of the province.In the Arsacides (Parthians) era, Isfahan was the center and capital city of a wide province which was administered by Arsacide governors. In Sassanides time, Isfahan was residence of and governed by "Espoohrans" or the members of seven noble Iranian families who had major and important royal positions. Moreover, in this period Isfahan was a military center with strong fortifications. This city was occupied by Arabs after final defeat of Iranians. After Islam, Isfahan was under domination of Arabs, like other cities of Iran, till the early 4th century AH., and it was paid attention only by Caliph Mansour. In the reign of Malekshah Saljooghi, Isfahan was again selected as capital and began another golden age. In this period, Isfahan was one of the most thriving and important cities of the world. This city was conquered by gols in 639 AH. and they massacred the people. After the invasions of gols and Taymour, as the result of its suitable geographic situation, Isfahan flourished again especially in Safavid time which developed considerably. After selection of Isfahan as capital by Shah Abbas in the year 1000 AH. it reached to its pinnacle of briskness. decline of Safavid dynasty by Mahmood Afghan and conquest of Isfahan a 6 th siege, caused a degeneration period for this city. In Afsharieh and Zandieh times it flourished again but during Ghajars reign, due to choosing Tehran as capital, Isfahan began to decline once more.
Isfahan, regarding its historical and geographic conditions, was paid attention during Pahlavi time and some endeavors were made for repair and restoration of historical uments. Moreover, Isfahan township and the province redeveloped and industrialized rapidly. During last two decades, Isfahan developed with a very high rate of acceleration from urban development point of view, highly observing restoration of historical uments. Today, Isfahan is one of the important tourism centers of Iran and the world. The most important eye-pleasing places of Isfahan are as follows:
Semirom, Shaloora and Kord Olya waterfalls, Vertoon, Khoor Biabanak, Abshar Shah,
Deymeh, Molad Ladezh and hot mineral water springs,
Ghameshloo and Kolah Ghazi Protected Areas,
Ali-Ghapoo, Chehel-Sotoon, Hasht-Behesht palaces and edifices,
Maymeh, Moorcheh-Khort, Maal, and historical villages,
Marfa-An, Deeve, and Torshak castles,
Allahverdikhan, Khajoo, Shahrestan, Farnan, and Saadat-abad histirical bridges,
Sheik Alikhan, Mahyar, Sarayeh Sefid, Mirza Koochek-Khan, khansariha and caravansaries,
Jonban (shaking), Chehel Dokhtar, Sareban, Zyar, Rahrowan, Atashkhaneh, Atashkhaneh,
Darolzyah, Ghaar, shaaya, and Goldasteh minarets,
Several historical inscriptions,
Old schools of Chaharbagh, Babaghasem, Molah Abdollah, Mirza Hasan, Kaseh Garan,
Nimavard, Jalalyeh, Shams Abad, and Heydar,
Isfahan Bazaars and their appendages,
Akhavan, Kharrazi, Pirnya, Jamal, Ghodsieh, Sheikhol-Islam, and houses
Several pigeon houses,
Imam (Naghsh-e-Jahan) square,
Several eye-catching mosques with amazing architecture and tile-works,
Kooh Sangi fire-temple,
Several mausoleums of Iranian Gnostics and poets,
Historical churches in Jolfa.
Wildlife and Protected Regions
Being located in the central plateau of Iran, Isfahan province due to different climate, special topography and neighboring with Zayandeh Rood river, enjoys a rich biological diversity providing suitable opportunities for game and fish activities. Fishing is com along Zayandeh Rood river from Marian bridge in Isfahan towards Sarcheshmeh from late June till mid March. Hunting of, boar, wild sheep wild goat, gazelle, different birds are possible according to the regulations of the Department of the Environment.
The protected areas of the province are:
Ghameshloo Protected Area located west to Isfahan covering an area of 37,000 hectares. It is a mountainous region with dry and cold climate. This area was hunting-ground of royal family in Ghajar time and there are some vestiges belonging to this period. This area is composed of two parts; a wildlife refuge and a grazing forbidden area. The existing wildlife are wild sheep, wild goat and gazelle. The birds are partridge, dull-yellow partridge, bustard, vulture and ...
Mooteh Protected Area covering an area of 220,000 hectares situated in the midst of Kashan, Lenjan, Mahallat, Golpayegan, Khansar, and Maymeh. It is mainly habitat of gazelle.
hKolah Ghazi-Wildlife Refuge is located in the south of Isfahan 26 km. far from it. from east side it is under the influence of desert and from west side it is influenced by Zagross mountain range. The mammals of this region are: wild sheep, wild goat, gazelle, leopard, rabbit, wolf, hyena, jackal, sand cat, fox, and etc. The existing birds are partridge, dull-yellow partridge, owl, eagle, falcon, and .. There are also different species of reptiles